Gupta Empire

Gupta Empire

Here we will discuss about Gupta Empire which is highly useful for SSC, NDA, CDS, UPSC, UPPSC and State PSC Examinations.

Gupta Age Descriptive notes
Gupta Age

Gupta Empire (320-550 AD)

After the collapse of Mauryan dynasty, a new dynasty called Guptas arose in Magadha and established its control over the greater part India.
  • The period of Gupta empire is referred as the Classical Age or Golden Age of ancient India.
  • The first two kings of the Gupta dynasty - Sri Gupta and Ghatokacha were satisfied with the title Maharaja.

Chandragupta I

  • The real founder of the Gupta empire was Chandragupta I.
  • He was the first Gupta ruler to assume the title of Maharajadhiraj.
  • His married to Lichchavis princess Kumaradevi , brought an enormous power to build his empire.
  • His empire included Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Bengal.


  • Samudra Gupta was the greatest king of the Gupta dynasty.
  • Samudra Gupta followed Kautilya's principle : "Only the mighty will fight and destroy the enemy." 
  • According to Allhabad Prasasthi, Samudra Gupta defeated 9 kings in northern India.
  • He captured and annexed the Aryavarta rulers.
  • Samudra Gupta also defeated 12 kings in south India.
  • He was a great patron of art and adopted the title of Kaviraja.
  • Harisena was the court poet of Samdura Gupta.
  • Samdura Gupta was called Hero of Hundred war by Harisena.
  • V.A Smith calls Samudragupta the Nepoleon of India.
  • On some coins he is shown playing Veena.

Chandragupta II

  • Samdudra Gupta was succeeded by Ramgupta but Chandragupta II killed him and married his queen Dhruvadevi.
  • Chandragupta II invaded the Shaka kingdom of Gujrat and Kathiawar, killed the Shaka king Rudrasimha III and annexed the kingdom.
  • Chandragupta II adopted the title Vikramaditya.
  • His court contained 9 gems including Kalidasa, Amarsimha, Fa-hien, Acharya Dignaga etc.
  • Fa-hien, the Chinese pilgrim came during the time of Chandragupta II.

Kumargupta I

  • Chandragupta II was succeeded by Kumargupta I
  • Kumargupta I adopted the title Mahendraditya.
  • He started worship of God Kartikeya.
  • Kumargupta I founded the Nalanda University, which developed into a great center of learning.
  • First huna invasion was occured during his period.


  • Skandagupta adopted the title Vikramaditya.
  • He had to fight the Pushyamitra Sunga and Hunas.
  • Skandagupta was called the Attila of India by Mihirkul.

Some important points of Gupta Empire

  • The official language of of the Guptas was Sanskrtit.
  • The position of Sudras improved in Gupta period.
  • Bronze image of Buddha recoverd from Sultanganj.
  • In Gupta period for the first time civil and criminal law were clearly defined and demarcated.
  • Polygamy was common.
  • The king collected taxes varying from 1/6 to 1/4 of the produce.
  • Lands under cultivation were usually called kshetra, while those not under cultivation were called as khila, aparhata, etc.

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