States of India-Indian Geohraphy

States of India

Indian Geography

States of India
All States of India

India is a diverse country. At present, there are total of 28 states ( Except Jammu & Kashmir) in this country. The diversity of each state is different. Today we will discuss in detail India and the states of India.


India is the seventh largest and the second most populous country in the World. It lies between latitudes 8°4' N and 37°6' N and longitudes 68° 7'E and 97°25' E.

Tropic of Cancer:
Country is divided into almost equal parts by the Tropic of Cancer. Tropic of Cancer Passes through 8 states (From West to East) Gujarat — Rajasthan — Madhya Pradesh – Chattisgarh - Jharkhand - West Bengal — Tripura — Mizoram.

Some important points :
  • Southernmost point of Indian Territory — Indira Point (6°45).
  • Andman and Nicobar and Nicobar India stretches from North to South - 3214 km. 
  • India stretches from East to West – 2933 km. 
  • Total length of mainland – 15,200 km. 
  • Total length of coastline – 7516.6 km 
  • Total boundary - 22716.6 km.
  • No. of Island in Bay of Bengal — 204 
  • No. of Island in Arabian Sea - 43
  • Southernmost point of Mainland -  Cape Comorin (Kanya Kumari).
  • Coastline of mainland India — 6100 km.
  • Total coastline including Lakshadweep and Andman 7516.6 km.

1. Andhra Pradesh 

Date of Formation: 1st November 1956
Capital: Hyderabad
Number of Districts:13
Biggest District of Andhra Pradesh: Ananthapur
(Area wise)
Most Populace District: East Godavari 
Least Populace District: Vizianagaram
Largest City: Visakhapatnam 
High Court for the state of Andhra Pradesh: Hyderabad
Chief Language: Telegu and Urdu
First Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh: Tangutiri Prakasam
First Governor of Andhra Pradesh: Sri Chandulal Madhavlal Trivedi

   •State Symbols of Andhra Pradesh:
Animal: Black Buck
Bird: Indan Roller
Tree: Neem
Flower: Lotus
 •Most Important Facts of Andhra Pradesh:
1. First State of India formed in linguistic basis is Andhra Pradesh.
2. Andhra Pradesh is called Rice bowl of India.

2. Telangana 

Date of Formation: 2nd June 2014
Capital: Hyderabad
Number of Districts:33
Biggest Distric of :Bhadradi Kothagudem
Largest City: Hyderabad
High Court for the State of Telangana: Hyderabad
Chief Language: Telegu, Urdu
First Chief Minister of Telangana: K Chandra Sekhar Rao
First Governor of Telengana: ESL Narasimhan

   •State Symbols of  Telengana:
Animal: Deer
Bird: Indian Roller
Tree: Jammi
Flower: Tangedu

3. Arunachal Pradesh

Date of Formation: 20 February, 1987
Capital: Tanager 
Number of Districts:16
Largest City: Itanagar
High Court for the state of Arunachal Pradesh: Guwahati
National Park: Namdapha
Chief Language: Sino-Tibetian, Manpa, Adi, Nishi
Educational Institution: Rajiv Gandhi University 
First Chief Minister of Arunachal Paradesh: Prem Khandu Thungan
First Governor of Arunachal Pradesh: Bhima Narain Singh

   •State Symbols of  Arunachal Pradesh:
Animal: Mithun
Bird: Great hornbill
Tree: Hollong
Flower: Lady Slipper Orchid

 •Most Important Facts of Arunachal Pradesh
1. Arunachal Pradesh is the easternmost state of India. Early it was part of Asam and separated in 1972.
2. Arunachal Pradesh is also known as NEFA (North-East Frontier Agency) from 1972 to 1987.
3. Arunachal Pradesh is called as Land of Rising Sun.

4. Assam
Date of Formation:26th January, 1950
Capital: Dispur
Number of Districts: 27
Largest City: Guwahati
High Cour for the State of Assamt: Guwahati
Chief Language: Assamese, Bengali, Bodo/Boro
First Chief Minister of Assam: Gopinath Bardoloi 
First Governor of Assam: Sir Akbar Hydari

   •State Symbols of Assam:
Animal: One Horned Rhinoceros 
Bird: White Winged Word Duck
Tree: Hollong
Flower: Foxtail Orchids
 •Most Important Facts of Assam:
1. Assam is surrounded by six of the other seven sisters (Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, Meghalaya)
2. In an epic Raghuvansha, written by Kalidas, this region was introduced as Nillohit.
3. Assam was known as Pragjyotisha or the place of Eastern  Astronomy during the epic period and later named as Kamrupa.
4. With the independence in 1947 Sylthet leaving Karimuganj went out to joint east Pakistan, now Bangladesh.
5. Manas National Park is situated in Kamrup district near the border of bhutan.
6. The Kaziranga National Park is situated 200km away from Guwahati and spreaded in 440 sq. km. area.

5. Bihar

Date of Formation: 15th August, 1947
Capital: Patna
Number of Districts: 38
Largest City: Patna
High Court for the State of Bihar: Patna
Chief Language: Hindi, Urdu, Bhojpuri 
First Chief Minister of Bihar: Sri Krishna Sinha
First Governor of Bihar: Jairamdas Daulatram.

   •State Symbols of Bihar:
Animal: Gaur
Bird: Indian Roller
Tree: Peepal
Flower: Kachnar

6. Chhattishgarh 
Date of Formation: 1st November, 2000
Capital: Raipur
Number of Districts: 27
Largest District  of Chhattisgarh: Bastar
Largest City (area wise): Korba
High Court for the state of : Bilaspur 
Chief Language: Chhattisgarhi, Hindi
First Chief Minister of Chhattisgarh: Ajit Jogi
First Governor of Chhattisgarh: D N Sahay

   •State Symbols of  Chhattisgarh:
Animal: Wild Buffalo
Bird: Hill Myna
Tree: Sal
Flower: Rhynchostylis

7. Goa

Date of Formation: 30 May, 1962
Capital: Panaji
Number of Districts: 2
Biggest District of Goa: North Goa
(Area wise)
High Court for the state of Goa: Mumbai
Chief Language: Konkani, Marathi
First Chief Minister of Goa:Dayanad B Bandokar
First Governor of Goa: Gopal Singh

   •State Symbols of Goa:
Animal: Gaur
Bird: Black Crested Bulbul
 •Most Important Facts of Goa:
1. Goa is the smallest state of India.

8. Gujrat
Date of Formation: 1st May, 1960
Capital: Gandhinagar
Number of Districts: 26
High Court for the state of Gujrat: Ahmedabad 
Chief Language: Gujrati
First Chief Minister of Gujrat: Jivraj Narayan Mehta
First Governor of Gujrat: Mehdi Nawaj Jung

   •State Symbols of Gujrat:
Animal: Asiatic Lion 
Bird: Great Flamingo 

 •Most Important Facts of Gujrat:
1. Gujrat has the longest coastal line about 1660km.

9. hariyana
Date of Formation: 1st Novembar, 1966
Capital: Chandigarh
Number of Districts: 21
Largest City: Faridabad
High Court for the state of Hariyana: Chandigarh
Chief Language: Hindi, Punjabi
First Chief Minister of Hariyana : Bhagwat Dayal Sharma
First Governor of Hariyana: Dharma Vira

   •State Symbols of  Hariyana:
Animal: Black Buck
Bird: Black Francolin
Tree: Peepal
Flower: Lotus
 •Most Important Facts of Haryana:
1.Jamnagar district is the largest industrial town of Haryana.
2. Panipath is called weaver city for his hand loom products.

10. Himachal Pradesh
Date of Formation: 25 January, 1971
Capital: Shimla
Number of Districts: 12
High Court for the state of Himachal Pradesh: Shimla
Chief Language: Pahari, Hindi, Panjabi 
First Chief Minister of Himachal Pradesh: Yashwant Singh Parmar
First Governor of Himachal: Pradesh: Sh. S Chakravarty 

   •State Symbols of  Himachal Pradesh :
Animal: Snow Leopard
Bird: Western tragopan
Tree: Deodar
Flower:Pink Rhododendron 
 •Most Important Facts of Himachal Pradesh:
1.Solan is the largest industrial area.

11. Jammu Kashmir (Union Territory)
Date of Formation: 26 October, 1947
Capital: Sri Nagar (Summer Capital), Jammu(Winter Capital)
Number of Districts: 22
High Court for the state of Jammu Kashmir: Sri Nagar and Jammu
Chief Language: Urdu, Kashmiri, Dogri
First Chief Minister of Jammu Kashmir: Mehr Chand Mahajan
First Governor of Jammu Kashmir:Mahraja Karan Singh

   •State Symbols of  Jammu Kashmir:
Animal: Hangul
Bird: Black Necked Crane.
Tree: Chinar.
Flower: Lotus.

12. Jharkhand
Date of Formation: 
Capital: Ranchi
Number of Districts: 24
High Court for the state of Jharkhand: Ranchi
Chief Language: Hindi, Urdu, Santali, Ho
First Chief Minister of Jharkhand: Babulal Marandi
First Governor of Jharkhand : Prabhat Kumar

   •State Symbols of  Jharkhand:
Animal: Elephant
Bird: Koel
Tree: Sal
Flower: Palash
 •Most Important Facts of Jharkhand:
1. Jharkhand means land of forest.
2.Jharkhand is also known as store house of Mineral.

13. Karnatak
Date of Formation: 1st November, 1956
Capital: Bengaluru 
Number of Districts: 30
Largest City: Bengaluru 
High Court for the state of Karnataka: Bengaluru 
Chief Language: Kannada
First Chief Minister of Karnatak: Arcot Ramaswami Mudaliar
First Governor of Karnataka: Jaya Chamarajendra Wodeyar

   •State Symbols of  Karnataka:
Animal: Elephant
Bird: Indian Roller
Tree: sandal
Flower: Lotus
 •Most Important Facts of Karnatak:
1.The Word Karnataka is also used in Brihatsamhita written by Varahmihir.

14. Kerala

Date of Formation: 1st November, 1956
Capital: Thiruvananthapuram 
Number of Districts: 14
Largest City: Kochi
High Court for the state of Kerala: Kochi
Chief Language: Malayalam 
First Chief Minister of Kerala: Pattom Thanu Pillai
First Governor of Kerala: Burgula Ramkrishna Rao

   •State Symbols of  Kerala:
Animal: Elephant
Bird: Great Hornbill 
Tree: Coconut
Flower: Golden Shower Tree
 •Most Important Facts of Kerala:
1. Kerala has the highest literacy rate(93.90%) and the highest sex ratio(1084).
2. Kerala has the highest human development index in India.

15. Madhya Pradesh 
Date of Formation: 1st November, 1956
Capital: Bhopal
Number of Districts: 50
High Court for the state of Madhya Pradesh: Jabalpur
Chief Language: Hindi
First Chief Minister of Madhya Pradesh : Ravishankar Shukla
First Governor of Madhya Pradesh : Dr. Pattabhi Sitaramayya

   •State Symbols of Madhya Pradesh:
State animal:Barasingha (Rucervus duvaucelii)
State bird: Indian paradise flycatcher (Terpsiphone paradisi)
State fish: Mahsheer (Tor tor)
State flower: Madonna lily (Lilium candidum)

 •Most Important Facts of Madhyapradesh:
1.Madhyapradesh is the 2nd largest state in India(Area wise).
2.Madhya Pradesh is also known as Heart of India and Tiger State.

16. Maharashtra
Date of Formation: 1st May, 1960
Capital: Mumbai
Number of Districts: 35
High Court for the state of Maharashtra: Mumbai
Chief Language: Marathi
First Chief Minister of Maharashtra: B. G. Kher
First Governor of Maharashtra:Raja Sir Maharaj Singh

   •State Symbols of Maharashtra :
Animal: Giant Squirrel 
Bird: Yellow-footed green pigeon
Tree: Mango
Flower: Jarul

 •Most Important Facts of Maharasthra:
1. Maharashtra is the 2nd most populated state and 3rd largest state by area.
2. Mumbai is the economical capital of India.

17. Manipur

Date of Formation: 21 January, 1972
Capital: Imphal
Number of Districts: 09
Largest City: Imphal
High Court for the state of Manipur: 
Chief Language: Manipuri
First Chief Minister of : M Koireng Singh
First Governor of Governor: Braj Kumar Nehru

   •State Symbols of Manipur:
Animal: Sangal
Bird: Mrs. Hume's Pheasant 
Tree: Toon
Flower: Shirul Lily

18. Meghalaya

Date of Formation: 21st January 1972 
Capital: Shilong
Number of Districts: 7
Largest City: Shilong
High Court for the state of Meghalaya: Shillong
Chief Language: Garo, Khasi, English 
First Chief Minister of Meghalaya: Williamson A Sangma
First Governor of Meghalaya: Braj Kumar Nehru 

   •State Symbols of  Meghalaya:
Animal: Clouded leopard
Bird: Hill Myna
Tree: White Teak
Flower: Lady Slipper Orchid
 •Most Important Facts of Meghalaya:
1. More than 70% of the state is in the under forest.

19. Mizoram 
Date of Formation: 20 February 1987
Capital: Aizawl
Largest City: Aizawl
High Court for the state of Mizoram: Guwahati
Chief Language: Mizo, Kuki, English
First Chief Minister of Mizoram: L Chal Chhunga
First Governor of Mizoram: Hiteshwar Saikia

   •State Symbols of  Mizoram:
Animal: Serow
Bird: Mrs. Hume's Pheasant 
Tree: Iron Wood
Flower: Red Vanda
 •Most Important Facts of Mizoram:
1. Highest Peak - Blue Mountain

20. Nagaland
Date of Formation:1st December, 1963
Capital: Kohima
Number of Districts: 11
Largest City: Dimapur
High Court for the state of Nagaland: Guwahati 
Chief Language: Angami, Ao, Konyak, 
First Chief Minister of Nagaland: Shilo Ao
First Governor of Nagaland: Vishnu Sahay

   •State Symbols of  Nagaland:
Animal: Mithun
Bird: Blyth's Tragopan
Tree: Alder
Flower: Rhododendron 
 •Most Important Facts of Nagaland:
1. The Aryan called the people of this region 'Naga'(Naked).

21. Odisha
Date of Formation: January, 1949
Capital: Bhubaneswar 
Number of Districts: 30
Largest City: Bhubaneswar 
High Court for the state of Odisha: Cuttack 
Chief Language: Odiya
First Chief Minister of Odisha: Hare Krishna Mehtab
First Governor of Odisha: Kailash Nathi Katju

   •State Symbols of  Odisha:
Animal: Sambhar
Bird: Indian Roller
Tree: Banyan
Flower: Lotus

22. Punjab 

Date of Formation: 15th August, 1947
Capital: Chandigarh
Number of Districts: 22
Largest City: Hoshiarpur
High Court for the state of Punjab: Chandigarh
Chief Language: Punjabi
First Chief Minister of Punjab: Gopi Chand Bhargava
First Governor of Punjab: Chandulal Madhavlal Trivedi

   •State Symbols of Punjab:
Animal. Black Buck(Antilope Cervicapra)
Bird. Baj(Eastern Goshawk)
Tree. Shisham(Dalbergia sissoo)

23. Rajasthan
Date of Formation: 1st November, 1956
Capital: Jaipur
Number of Districts: 33
Largest City: Alwar
High Court for the state of Rajasthan: Jodhpur
Chief Language: Rajasthani, Hindi
First Chief Minister of Rajasthan: Heera Lal Shastri
First Governor of Rajasthan: Maharaj Man Singh II 

   •State Symbols of  Rajasthan:
Animal: Camel
Bird: Godawan or Great Indian Bustard
Flower: Rohida

24. Sikkim
Date of Formation: 16 May, 1975
Capital: Gangtok 
Number of Districts: 9
Largest City: Gangtok 
High Court for the state of Sikkim: Gangtok
Chief Language: Nepali, Lepcha, Nimbu, Mundari
First Chief Minister of Sikkim: Kazi Lehdup Dorji
First Governor of Sikkim: Bipin Bihari Lal

   •State Symbols of  Sikkim:
Animal: Red Panda
Bird: Blood Pheasant 
Tree: Rhododendron 
Flower: Noble Orchid

 •Most Important Facts of Sikkim:
1. Sikkim is the least populated state in India and 2nd smallest in area after Goa.

25. Tamilnadu
Date of Formation: 18 July, 1967
Capital: Chennai 
Number of Districts: 32
High Court for the state of Tamilnadu: Chennai
Chief Language: Tamil
First Chief Minister of Tamilnadu: Amandu Ramaswami Reddiar
First Governor of Tamilnadu: Sir Archibald Edward Nye

   •State Symbols of  Tamilnadu:
Animal: Nilgiri Tahr
Bird: Emerald Dove
Tree: Palmyra Palm
Flower: Kandhal

26. Tripura
Date of Formation: 21 January, 1972
Capital: Agartala
Number of Districts:4
Largest City:Agartala
High Court for the state of Tripura: Agartala
Chief Language: Bengali, Tripuri, Manipuri 
First Chief Minister of Tripura: Sachindra Lal Singh
First Governor of Tripura: Braj Kumar Nehru

   •State Symbols of Tripura:
Animal: Phare's Langur
Bird: Green Imperial Pigeon 
Tree: Agar
Flower: Nageshwar
 •Most Important Facts of Tripura:
1. Tripura is the third smallest state by area in India.

27. Uttarakhand 
Date of Formation: 9th November, 2000
Capital: Dehradun 
Number of Districts: 21
High Court for the state of Uttarakhand: Nainital 
Chief Language: Hindi, Garhwali, Kumaoni

   •State Symbols of Uttarakhand:
Animal: Alpine musk deer
Bird: Himalayan monal
Tree: Rhododendron arboreum
Flower: Saussurea obvallata

28. Uttar Pradesh 
Date of Formation: 15th August, 1947
Capital: Lucknow 
Number of Districts: 75
High Court for the state of Uttar Pradesh: Allahabad 
Chief Language: Hindi, Urdu
First Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh: Govind Ballabh Pant
First Governor of Uttar Pradesh: Sir Hormasji Pherozeshah Modi

   •State Symbols of Uttar Pradesh:
Animal. Barasingha(Rucervus Duvaucelii)
Bird. Sarus Crane(Grus Antigone)
Flower. Palash(Butea Monosperma)
Tree. Sita Ashok(Saraca Asoca)

29. West Bengal
Date of Formation: 15th August, 1947
Capital: Kolkata
Number of Districts: 23
Biggest District of West Bengal :South 24 Parganas
(Area wise)
Most Populace District:  North Twenty Four Parganas
Least Populace District: Kalimpong District
Largest City: Kolkata
High Court for the state of West Bengal: Kolkata
Chief Language: Bengali
First Chief Minister of West Bengal: Prafulla Ghosh
First Governor of West Bengal: Chakravarty Raja Goapalachari

   •State Symbols of West Bengal:
Animal: Fishing Cat
Bird: White-Breasted King Fisher
Tree: Chatian / Devil Tree
Flower: Shephali

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